Galeria Aniela

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If you love ART of impeccable provenance, the ART you want is at Galeria Aniela

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Charles BLACKMAN graphics - Sold Out


If you are considering selling Blackman work of fine art, please Contact us



Arthur BOYD graphics - Sold Out

If you are considering selling Arthur Boyd work of fine art, please Contact us

Video Australian National News, BOYD, ABC TV

Video Sunday Afternoon, BOYD ABC TV




Jamie Boyd graphics

Jamie BOYD paintings

the Boyd family most important living artist

Video BOYD, Australian National News, ABC TV

Video BOYD Sunday Afternoon, ABC TV


National Gallery of Victoria, National Gallery of Australia, Victoria Gallery Museum
Liverpool UK, Tavistock Centre London, University of South Australia, University of Western Australia,  Council Adult Education Melbourne, Queen Victoria Museum & Gallery Launceston, University of Liverpool UK, Artbank, Bundanon Trust,

Owing an original limited edition work of Jamie BOYD art
is within your reach

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Pamela Griffith graphics

Pamela Griffith paintings

COLLECTIONS: National Gallery of Victoria, National Gallery of Australia, The Vatican,  Artbank, Parliament of Australia, Earl of Essex Edward, Powerhouse Museum, Metropolitan Museum NY, Musée national de la Marine Accueil Paris, Joan Sutherland Performing Arts Centre, State Library NSW, Parliament NSW, Mitchell Shire Libraries, State Library NSW, Governor NSW, Westmead Hospital, Charles Strut University, University NSW, Family Court Australia, Bundaberg Regional Gallery, Tamworth Regional Gallery, Dubbo Regional Gallery, Bathurst Regional Gallery, Wollongong City Gallery, Comalco Rio Tinto

Owing an original limited edition work of Pamela Griffith
art is within your reach.

Prices may change without a prior notice

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  Margaret OLLEY Graphics - Sold OUT


If you are considering selling Margaret Olley work of fine art please Contact us


one of Australia's most distinguished artists


Garry Shead Graphics - Sold out


If you are considering selling Garry Shead work of fine art, please Contact us


Highly acclaimed artist, Garry Shead belongs to the group of the some of the most famous Australians including Brett Whiteley



Galeria Aniela specializes in selling quality ART of impeccable provenance.

If you consider buying or selling a work of fine art, we would be pleased to advise, helping you save money and time, please CONTACT US

Techniques & Terminology

Making Authentic Fine Art Graphics

What is a limited edition ?

A Limited Edition graphic artwork is derived from an image produced from a block, a plate, a stone, on zinc, copper or some similar surface on which the artist has worked closely with a Graphic maker or Master Graphicer.

Unlike paintings or drawings, Graphics exist in multiples. The total number of impressions an artist decides to make for any one image is called an edition.

Each impression in an edition is numbered and personally signed by the artist.

An image may be based on an original painting, ‘after an oil’, or the artist (as in the case of Arthur Boyd) may paint “maquettes” specifically for Graphics. The artist may also create an image directly onto the plates, depending upon the chosen medium.

Each of the various methods of Graphics-making yields a distinct appearance. Artists choose a specific technique in order to achieve a desired result. The choice made by the artist to produce an image “in Graphic” is the same as choosing to work in oil or any other medium. The only difference in Graphic lies in the possibility of producing a number of near identical images.



Each artwork is offered for sale as part of a limited fine art Graphic run. Each bears a serial number above another number indicating the edition size. The number appears as a fraction, e.g. Graphic 1/10 is number one of an edition of ten.

The top number does not necessarily indicate the order of Graphicing.

Once the number of the edition is achieved the Graphicing is finished and strictly limited.

Then the plate may then be destroyed or changed completely.


Proof impressions, working proofs or state proofs

Some artworks are taken in addition to the numbered editions that are retained by the artist, the Graphicers, and the publishers as a record of the work. They are usually pulled before the plate is finished and are different to the edition. They often record an artist’s progress at various stages of a project.

Artist’s proof

Artist’s proofs are completed for distribution to the Artists and the Graphicers and the Publisher. They are equal in quality to the edition. They are few in number.

State or trial proofs

Proofs that are made along the way to the completion of the artwork and some that vary due to inconsistencies of the Graphicing process that are acceptable to the artist. They are few in number and rarely for sale.

Good to Graphic (GTP) or Bon a tirer (BAT)

This is the first proof that meets with the approval of the artist and is used as a yardstick by the Graphicers so the edition is consistent.


COLLAGRAPH (Intaglio / Relief)

Collograph is essentially a collage of various textured materials (e.g. cloth, crumpled paper or cardboard or acrylic build up). These materials are applied to a matrix.

Ink is then applied to the upper surface like a relief Graphic or rubbed into then removed from the top surface like an intaglio Graphic, or a combination of both.

Collagraphs can combine the techniques of both Relief and Intaglio Graphs-icing and provide the opportunity to achieve wonderful colours and textures. Collagraphs are created by building up the texture on the surface of the plate which is then inked in relief and Graphiced.

A multiple of colours is then applied to the surface of the plate and re-Graphs-iced until the final image is captured. The textured surface more closely simulates the painterly effects of the original artwork.



A designation for paper and paper based materials with a pH value of 7 or greater (based on an acidityalkali scale of 0 to 14. Using acid-free matboards, backing and Graphicmaking paper prevents acid burns (yellowishbrown burn lines) and discolouration from appearing on your artwork over time.


Archival Inks

Specialized inks used in fine art Graphic-making that have been optimized for the relevant Graphics-smaking techniques, desired colour saturation and image longevity.


Archival Paper

Papers used in fine art artworks that are acid-free and specifically made to last over time. These papers, which often have textured surfaces and extra heavy weight, are particularly conducive to accepting Graphics-making inks for contrast, colour saturation and image longevity.


Rag Paper

Historically paper was made in the west using cotton and linen rags. Today the term rag paper is sometimes applied to paper manufactured using cotton linters as its base fibre. It is usually neutral Ph, hard wearing and long lasting. Pulp paper made from trees is more acidic and less reliable and tough to withstand Graphs-icing pressure.



This is an etching process in which the artist is principally concerned with tone rather than line. For this technique a plate is covered with particles of acid resistant material such as resin, then heated to make the particles stick. The treated plate is then placed in an acid bath which bites into the copper which is exposed between grains of resin, yielding composition marked by texture and tone.

Aquatint is a tonal method of etching created by resin and acid bite. Granular tree rosin is dusted on a metal plate and melted over a hot plate or flame which makes the rosin ad here.

Areas where tone is not wanted are blocked out with a varnish. Acid bites around each grain of rosin giving the plate a tooth to hold ink by increasing the surface area of the plate. There are various methods of aquatint and they allow the artist to paint an image on the plate to create a gestural effect that resembles a brush stroke or spill. 


Soap ground aquatint or white aquatint

After a plate is prepared with aquatint rosin base the artist paints an image with soap that acts as an imperfect ground. When the plate is submerged in acid then the acid bites unevenly according to variations in the soap’s thickness. The Graphiced image is light against a dark background.

Sugar lift aquatint is a process whereby the artist applies an image on a bare plate with a sugar and water solution that is flexible and easily wiped off. The drawing is dried then covered with varnish and dried again. It is then placed in water and the sugar lifts as it dissolves in the water revealing the positive artist’s marks. The image that is revealed in this way is aquatinted and etched then Graphiced. The Graphiced image is dark against a light background.

Spit bite Aquatint

The artist paints the acid, sometimes mixed with spit, directly on a plate. This plate is already prepared to bite as an aquatint. This gives a spontaneous effect varying in depth of tone and the amount of acid used.


Multiple Colour

Colour is achieved when several plates are Graphiced one on top of the other. A separate plate is required when areas of different colours overlap one another.
A-la-poupee is another method of colour Graphicing in which several colours are inked on a single plate or plates.
Sometimes colour is rolled on a surface through a stencil to facilitate the Graphicing off the surface as well as from the ink in the lines. Some artists enhance their artworks with watercolour which is not a Graphicing process but an add on referred to as hand tinting. 


Intaglio means to cut or incise. Intaglio and etching are interchangeable terms for an inscribed Graphicing plate process. It describes a number of Graphicing processes including engraving, etching, dry-point, aquatint, and mezzotint. A metal plate is incised, coated in ink that is pressed into the incised areas. It is then wiped clean with gauze, called Tarleton, and finished with the palm of the hand. The inked plate is laid on the flat bed of the etching press, covered with damp paper and layers of felt and then subjected by the press roller to many tons of pressure, transferring the image to the paper. The Graphic is carefully dried to keep the paper flat. 


Relief Graphicing is a process where protruding surface faces of the Graphicing plate or block are inked while recessed areas are ink free. Graphicing the image is a relatively simple matter of inking the face of the matrix and bringing it in firm contact with paper. The ink is usually rolled on with a suitable roller however some relief Graphics use water based, rather than oily ink and usually a barren or firm wad is passed over the back of the paper and is sufficient to make the transfer of the inked image to the paper. 


Lithography is a Planographic Graphicing process that makes use of the immiscibility of grease and water. In the lithographic process, ink is applied to a grease-treated image on the flat Graphicing surface of a stone or plate. Non-image areas, which hold moisture, repel the lithographic ink that is greasy or oily. Ink from the greasy image area will be transferred to the Graphicing paper.



As the name implies a mono-Graphic is generally considered to be a single Graphic that is taken from a surface that has Graphicmaking ink, or in some cases paint, that is applied directly to the surface of a matrix by an artist. It is transferred to paper using pressure.


Hard ground etching

A plate is coated with wax or varnish, called a ground or acid resist. A sharp tool called a needle is used to scratch away the ground. The plate is immersed in acid which attacks (bites) the areas that have been scratched away, incising lines that are later filled with ink and Graphiced. A hard line is characteristic of a hard ground etching.  The extent of the acid bite is controlled by the length of time the plate remains in the acid. A deeper bite yields a darker line or tone. Massed lines and cross hatching also gives tones. 


Soft ground etching

A wax ground is made soft enough, by adding Vaseline or especially soft wax, to act as a resist on a metal plate This ground can be removed by pressing something into it. It is traditional for paper to be laid over the waxed plate and for pressure to be applied with a pencil, fingers, pen or crayon transferring this positive art work to the back of the paper and exposing areas of the plate to be etched. When Graphiced, soft ground lines are similar to pencil of crayon lines.



No ground is used to create the image. The plate is not submerged in a tray of acid. This is a direct linear process involving force. The artist draws with a sharp tool directly on the metal plate. The lines produced are characteristically soft and furry because the displaced metal creates a burr that holds ink along the incised groove and it produces a dragged, soft look. This process is often combined with an etched plate to give emphasis to an area that is intended to be rich and dark.



The artist works from dark to light. A solid black plate is usually created by working a shaped tool, known as a rocker, over the plate. Its many little spikes rough up the surface of the plate and when inked will Graphic solid black. The artist scrapes away the tooth in varying degrees to create areas that become white when Graphiced or various shades of grey.



An image is put on a plate photographically, the plate is bitten to different depths and tone or tooth is applied with aquatint and then Graphiced in intaglio. Direct gravure is a variant without the use of a camera in which the artist draws an image on a plastic film for transfers it to the plate.



Photographic images are applied to the plate using a plastic ground and a halftone screen to create tooth instead of aquatint, as in photogravure. 



A linear process in which the artist cuts directly into the plate with a diamond faceted tool called a burin to produce a sharp line.


Scraping and burnishing

Methods used to make changes in the incised artwork on the plate. Scarping is done first with a triangular wedge-shaped tool with a knife sharp blade at each edge. The scraped area should no longer carry ink when this is done correctly to remove metal. The burnisher is a bent rounded tool that soothes and polishes the surface after it has been scrapped. 

Plate mark is the indented impression of the edge of the plate in the paper caused by the pressure of the Graphicing press as the paper and plate pass under the rollers. If the bevelled edge of the plate has been smoothed by polishing, when Graphiced it will leave a clean indentation. If it is left rough it will carry some ink and be dark. 


Silk screen making does not require a Graphicing press. This technique was made famous in the 1960's when artists such as Andy Warhol exploited its bold, commercial look to make 'Pop Icons'.

To make a silk screen artwork, an image that has been cut out of paper or fabric is attached to a piece of tautly stretched mesh. Paint is then forced through the mesh (or screen) onto a sheet of paper beneath it by means of a squeegee.

The uncovered areas of the screen will, of course, allow the paint to pass through, while the areas covered by the compositional shapes will not. For works with more than one colour, a separate screen is required for each colour.

This technique is often referred to as 'serigraphy', it is a term coined to distinguish between commercial and artistic silk screen making.


Difference between a hand made limited edition artwork and digital Graphics

Most artists will continue to use mediums such as etching, lithographs, silkscreens and others because of its astonishing sensitivity to the papers involved and because each Graphic is an artwork in itself and collectable.

No two Graphic artworks are completely the same, each Graphic artwork is unique and that’s why they are so collectable.

Computer generated images are newish and some artists use them to make limited or open edition reproductions. They are generated by a digital Graphicing process.


How do I store and/or frame my Limited Edition Graphics?

If not framed, the limited edition artworks are best kept flat between acid-free paper in a box or portfolio and in a dry place.

You can frame your Fine Art Limited Edition or connect us to help you with the framers we use directly. Like us, they are experts and will ensure your Fine Art Limited Edition is presented in the best way possible.


Are all the artworks signed by the artist?

All artworks are sign by the artist. The artist signs each Graphic, usually in pencil, on the bottom right hand side of the Graphic artwork. The edition size and number are usually written on the left hand side and the title of the image in the middle.

Artists only sign off a Graphic when they are totally satisfied with the image and the Graphic itself.

This means that the signature is both a sign of authenticity and also a sign of the artist’s approval.


What is meant by ‘acid free’ paper?

The papers used by Graphicers are specifically made by papermakers to have a neutral’ acidity. Almost all everyday paper such as news Graphic or copy paper has a natural acid content.

This acid content leads to browning, brittleness and eventual disintegration.

The acid free papers, properly stored show no such degredation, even after many years.


How do I look after limited editions Artworks?

The Fine Art Limited Editions are done on 100% rag paper which is of the highest archival quality and acid free. The inks are the highest quality archival inks and light fast, which means that the inks are stable. However, as with any artwork, they should never be hung in direct sunlight.

Fine Art Limited Editions should not be rolled for long periods of time. Framing is the best preservation.

If not framed, the limited editions should be kept flat between acid-free paper in a box or portfolio and in a dry place.

  • When framing, the Limited Editions should be mounted using all acid-free materials.
  • Keep hanging the Limited Edition away from sunlight. If placing in a bright room, it is advisable to use UV glass.
  • Please ensure the hanging arrangement is sufficient to hold the weight.

Are Limited Edition Graphics good to collect?

Fine Art Limited edition artworks are handmade, numbered and signed by the artist, it is the perfect way to start or add to an art collection.

Collecting limited editions is a secure and safe section of the art investment market.

Stored correctly, they appreciate over time. And these Editions increase in value as the artist’s career escalates.

Presented in the right frame and environment, they will give you, your family and guests an appreciation of the skill, talent and sheer creativity of many of Australia’s leading artists. They lift the environment.

All art objects are prone to some risk in terms of investment. That risk can be minimized by buying Graphics by artists who have a high reputation and are fairly well established or of an iconic nature. And also, purchase from a reputable supplier.



Galeria Aniela provides an independent professional service and experienced guidance  representing clients best interest in the art marketWhether you are a first-time buyer, an enthusiastic collector or an astute investor, our people focused approach ensures an enjoyable and rewarding experience.

We welcome the opportunity to speak with you, please feel free to contact us to discuss ways in which Galeria Aniela can assist you now and in the future. 

If you consider buying or selling a work of fine art, we would be pleased to advise, helping you save money and time, please Contact Us

Galeria Aniela FINE ART dealer-consultant |video

Founded in 1994, Galeria Aniela exhibited world-class artists and receiving many celebrities such as Sir David Attenborough, Cameron O’Reilly and Bob Hawke, the PM of Australia, built the strong standing in Australia and around the world.

The BOYD family exhibition coup the front page of the  Sydney Morning Herald and Australian National NEWS, ABC TV and also Sunday Afternoon, ABC TV

John Perceval Retrospective coup the Australian National NEWS, the ABC TV and Charles Blackman Retrospective conquer the SBS TV Art-Scream.

video |Jamie BOYD - most important LIVING artist of the Boyd family


Combining a wide network of resources with our expertise in Australian and International art, we assist clients in in all aspects of acquisitions of Art objects, shipping worldwide, ensuring high-quality purchases of impeccable provenancehelping save time and money.


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Click on the picture - Watch the Video


The Boyd Family exhibition   The Best of BOYD exhibition   John Perceval AO Retrospective

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